*Update* It looks like it's going to work! It's all back on, and I've been weaving for a little while. It looks like I got the threading and tension mess all fixed-a day and half later. I kept doing what you said and just slowly, very slowly, kept winding the warp back on through the reed and heddles.
I do have another question though. This is my third warp on my new Spring loom. I notice when I need to advance the warp, I pull the brake release handle up, but the warp hardly releases. I can get about two pulls on the ratchet before my floating breastbeam leg is back in place. So I have to do that 5 or 6 times to advance the warp. Am I doing something wrong?